2015 | Month:December | Volume:2 | Issue:3 | Page:186-203

Applications of Nanotechnology in Dentistry

SECTION A: Role of Nanotechnology in Dental implants

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Umesh Y Pai

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Osseointegration of a dental implant is a primary measure of its long term success. Direct bone-to-implant contact is desired for a biomechanical anchoring of implants to bone rather than fibrous tissue encapsulation. Surface characteristics of implants such as surface treatment and thread designs play a determinant role in these biological interactions. Nanotechnologies are increasingly used for surface modifications of dental implants. Another approach to enhance osseointegration is the application of thin calcium phosphate (CaP) coatings. Bioactive CaP nanocrystals deposited on titanium implants are resorbable and stimulate bone apposition and healing. Future nanometer-controlled surfaces may ultimately direct the nature of peri-implant tissues and improve their clinical success rate. This paper reviews the different steps of the interactions between biological tissues and surfaces of implants using nanotechnology.

SECTION B: Applications of Nanotechnology in Prosthodontics

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Mahesh Mundathaje

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Like other branches of dentistry, restorative dentistry including prosthodontics and implant dentistry have made remarkable progress with respect to nanotechnology. In prosthodontics, various types of nanomaterials are added to improve the properties of commonly used materials Nanoparticles are added to polymethyl methacrylate as antimicrobial agents to increase the viscoelastic property of resins.

At present, ceramic dental crown is mainly including alumina ceramic and zirconia ceramic. Traditional ceramics are made of clay and other natural occurring materials, while modern high-tech ceramics use silicon carbide, alumina, and zirconia. Compared with the conventional ceramics, nanoceramics have a unique property like superelasticity, which makes it become the hot topic in the study of materials science

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Nanomaterials have been playing a significant role in basic scientific innovation and clinical technological change of prosthodontics.

SECTION C:Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology in Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics

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Laxmish Mallya, Kanchana

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Nanotechnology was first described in 1959 by physicist Richard P Feynman. The term “NANO” is derived from the Greek word “DWARF”. Application in the field started in the 1980 with the invention of scanning tunnelling microscopes and the discovery of carbon monotubes. The aim of this article is to review potential application, hazards of nanoscience in Conservative dentistry and Endodontics. While bacteria reach a size of 10 -6 m, nanotechnology deals with structures as small as 10 -9 m.





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